Navy Cyber Power 2020 (NCP 2020)
Navy Cyber Power 2020 identifies distinct qualities the Navy must possess to succeed, and introduces methods to build a relevant and extremely capable Navy Cyber warfighting force for the future. This strategy examines cyberspace operations from multiple vectors, and considers challenges and influencing factors beyond traditional operational aspects. The way we acquire systems, train cyber professionals, and choose technologies to meet our requirements directly impacts our ability to deliver credible capabilities to deter or contain conflict, and fight and win wars. Implementation and sustainment of this strategy will operationalize cyberspace with capabilities that span all warfighting domains and provide superior awareness and control when and where we need it. Executing this strategy will be hard work and will take a concerted effort at all echelons.
Navy Vision for Cyberspace Operations – The vision to achieve Navy Cyber Power 2020, is that Navy cyberspace operations provide Navy and Joint commanders with an operational advantage by:
- Assuring access to cyberspace and confident Command and Control (C2)
- Preventing strategic surprise in cyberspace
- Delivering decisive cyber effects
The focus areas and their desired End-States of Navy Cyber Power 2020 are:
- Integrated Operations -Fully integrate Navy cyberspace operations in support of achieving Joint Force objectives.
- Define Cyber Information Needs
- Evolve Doctrine and OPLANS
- Routinely Exercise and Assess
- Optimized Cyber Workforce – Drive Navy and Joint cyberspace operations with an effectively recruited, trained, and positioned workforce.
- Provide an Adaptive Navy Force Model
- Change the Culture
- Strengthen Navy Cyber Knowledge
- Technology Innovation – Leverage industry, academia, and Joint partners to rapidly update Navy cyberspace capabilities to stay ahead of the threat.
- Deliver Cyber Situational Awareness (SA)
- Lead Joint Cyber Modeling, Simulation, and Analysis
- Pilot New Technology
- PPBE & Acquisition Reform – Enhance cyber budgeting and acquisition to meet the Navy’s cyber operational needs.
- Integrate Cyber Requirements
- Integrate Cyber funding Across Navy budget
- Advance Acquisition to pace Industry
The Secretary of Defense’s strategic guidance (DSG) highlights the critical role cyberspace operations play in the success of the Joint Force across all mission areas; the documents below focus on the Cyber Warfare aspect of the DSG. The Nation’s success in the maritime domain depends upon our ability to project power and prevail in cyberspace. Navy Cyber Power 2020 strategic initiatives provide the ways and means to achieve and sustain the Navy’s advantage in cyberspace.
We will issue a supporting roadmap detailing lead and support organizations for each strategic initiative and the major actions necessary to accomplish them. However, as cyberspace evolves the Navy’s leadership will periodically assess the strategy of Navy Cyber Power 2020, to ensure it effectively guides the Navy’s efforts to maintain an operational advantage in cyberspace. Furthermore, the Navy will institute a comprehensive set of strategic performance measures to track the Navy’s progress and ensure that our actions are having the desired effect. When necessary, we will adjust course to respond to, if not anticipate, change that continues apace. Our success in cyberspace requires an “all hands” effort, from the Pentagon to the deck plate.
Navy Cyber Power 2020 supports the Navy Strategy for Achieving Information Dominance, additional related supporting documents include: the Navy Information Dominance Roadmap, 2013-2028; the Navy IDC Human Capital Strategy, 2012-2017; the Naval Intelligence Strategy, 2013-2020; and, the 2013 Navy Space Strategy. Within this integrated framework, the Navy begins in earnest the process of marshaling its resources, galvanizing the workforce, and aligning Navy’s Information Dominance capabilities to fully enable the Navy’s primary tenet of Warfighting First.
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“Yours is the profession of arms, the will to win, the sure knowledge that in war there is no substitute for victory, that if you lose, the Nation will be destroyed, that the very obsession of your public service must be Duty, Honor, Country.” – General Douglas MacArthur [farewell speech to West Point Cadets in May of 1962]
The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Martin Dempsey, starts out a recent America’s Military – A Profession of Arms White Paper that encourages us to “renew our commitment to the Profession of Arms” to continue to shape Joint Force 2020.
The Key components of the paper are:
- The Military Profession
- Leadership as the Foundation – Strengthening our Profession of Arms
- Mission Command
- Jointness – Strength from Diversity
- The Way Ahead – Advancing the Profession of Arms
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The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Martin Dempsey, starts out a recent Mission Command White Paper that focuses on development of the 2020 Joint Force with:
“Mission command is the conduct of military operations through decentralized execution based upon mission-type orders. Successful mission command demands that subordinate leaders at all echelons exercise disciplined initiative and act aggressively and independently to accomplish the mission.” – Joint Publication 3-0 “Joint Operations” 11 AUG 2011
Immediately delving into the root of what Mission Command, commander’s intent, command by negation (used by the U.S. Navy and may come with some cockiness), centralized planning, decentralized execution the Chairman looks to move the “empowerment bar” back a bit more toward the tactical level. Sounds much like I described in Developing Naval Leaders: A Gamer’s Method. This will be critical as our Military forces must remain empowered to execute operations against an adversary in their tactical specific realm. He goes further to note that these models of command must be complimented by adept and adaptable leaders at every level.
“The relevance of space and cyberspace to national security will grow exponentially in magnitude of importance. Our reliance on technological superiority is a potential vulnerability that our adversaries will seek to exploit, often in covert or indirect ways.”
I wrote about Technology-Centric Warfare supported by Information-Centricity and one of its main points was the technological superiority aspect that the U.S. Military has always relied upon. The Chairman also notes that the “pace of change” and the “speed of operations” will only increase. This brief statement has a very large and monolithic challenge hidden within. The human element, for the most part, has been relatively constant with its ability to learn & understand. This then translates to a fairly constant speed at which we’re able to change and adapt both individually and organizationally.
“Smaller, lighter forces operating in an environment of increased uncertainty, complexity and competitiveness will require freedom of action to develop the situation and rapidly exploit opportunities. Decentralization will occur beyond current comfort levels and habits of practice.”
This conceptual statement dies rapidly at the staffing level, within the Navy, if not assured by the Commander’s authority and responsibility. But is in the “spirit” of John Boyd’s Observe-orient-decide-act or “OODA Loop” cycle.
Much of this cyclical process is based on the empowered Commander’s ability to understand and ensure trust both up and down the echelon scale. These abilities will then foster the capability to provide “superior speed in competitive cycles of decision making;” a significant necessity I’ve seen numerous leaders state requirements for yet goes without being addressed. To instill this ability should we be supplementing the education our leaders receive with something like Carnegie Mellon’s Decision Sciences or Strategy, Entrepreneurship, and Technological Change?
What I do know is that while we routinely enjoy being in communication with subordinate units, the next higher echelon, and the planet the Military and Navy are not ready to execute without that tether. A far cry from our history.
“Any commander who fails to exceed his authority is not of much use to his subordinates.” – Admiral Arleigh Burke